Abortion is still a debatable topic in most of the countries. Process of abortion is considered legal if done in a proper MTP(Medical Termination of Pregnancy) facility approved by the government.
The first step involves the doctor knowing the reason for abortion. MTP can only be performed under the following reasons as there can be serious consequences of abortion
- When a pregnant woman has a serious medical disease and continuation of pregnancy could endanger her life.
- When the continuation of pregnancy could lead to substantial risk to the newborn leading to serious physical/mental handicaps.
- Pregnancy cauesd as a result of rape.
- Condition where the socio-economic status of the mother hampers the progress of the healthy pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child.
- Failure of Contraceptive Device irrespective of the method used.
Process Of Abortion
If the woman is married or single and above 18 years of age her own consent. If below 18 or mentally unstable consent of the guardian is required.
Procedure to perform abortion
Firstly the doctor performs tests to check the patients physical and mental condition through a series of test which includes blood pressure and weight to make sure the patient can under the procedure without any serious health issue. Next an ultrasound examination is done to confirm the duration of pregnancy. Other tests like Rh factor and hemoglobin estimation are also performed.
First trimester abortion
The first trimester abortion has a choice between medical or surgical abortion procedure.
Dilatation and evacuation
This method is used before 12 weeks of pregnancy. The cervix is dilated by introducing a hollow metal rod of increasing diameter, the contents of the uterus are removed by scraping or suction. The procedure takes 15 minutes.
The method is performed between 1 to 3 weeks of pregnancy. A tube is inserted in the uterus and its contents are sucked out by pressure created by a syringe. The procedure takes 10 minutes.
Methotrexate & Misoprostol
The method is performed in the first seven weeks of pregnancy. The patient is given an injection of methotrexate and inserts misoprostol into the vagina.
Mifepristone and Misoprostol
The method is used in the first sever to nine weeks of pregnancy. It also referred to as RU-486 pill. It is consumed orally.
Second trimester abortion
Second trimester abortion does not have the option of medical abortion only surgical methods can be performed.
The procedure is performed between 13-20 weeks of pregnancy.The procedure is similar to ‘Dilatation and evacuation’ performed in the first trimester.
The methods is employed between 13-20 weeks of pregnancy. This is a major procedure which involves opening the abdomen and uterus and the contents are removed directly under vision.
Third trimester abortion
Third trimester abortion also referred to as late term abortion is considered illigal in many countries as the baby is viable.
The method is employed after 21 weeks of pregnancy. Potassium chloride is injected into the amniotic sac. Prostaglandins are inserted into the vagina and pitocin is injected.
Dilatation and extraction
The method is also employed 21weeks after pregnancy. The method is same as dilatation and evacuation performed in first trimester. This method is against the law at this stage.
These are the different type of abortion employed by doctors. People should keep in mind that abortions are to be performed under unavoidable circumstances as there are serious side effects of abortion.